Guys wanted to be him. This All Black — and remember an All Black rugby player is basically a god to many in New Zealand — on his way home from a fancy-dress party one night turned up at a university flat party by mistake, wearing a red afro wig.
He then wandered off home. A gruff generosity is the lubricant that keeps New Zealand turning along smoothly. Kiwi ingenuity is a bit of a byword in New Zealand. Things have started well. Your hair is a mess, and you realise that your jumper is on inside out. No worries. It looks good like that. As a rule, Kiwis will always use their manners. Even the roughest, toughest Kiwi farmers will thank the bus driver when they hop off. Everyone accepts that really everyone working in the public sector is providing a service.
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Riding the bus or having your post delivered is a privilege not a right, and people recognise this. These huts are used by hikers and hunters who need a place to stay for a night or two. All are welcome, and everyone respects that this is another one of those privileges that makes Aotearoa great. An example of best practice is from a section 10 at Kaipo bog, far removed from any possible magmatic 14 C contamination 3 , which incorporates the Taupo eruption deposits. The potential impact of injected 14 C-depleted magmatic CO 2 on reservoir ages in Lake Taupo and the Waikato River draining the lake is documented HDK18 present 14 C dates of organic materials from this area, i.
We discount this proposition at the Pureora forest site for several reasons.
Groundwater at the site is sourced from local rainfall 1. Third, the Pureora area also shows no traces of young faulting 12 that could have channelled putative magmatic CO 2. Fourth, the mechanism of gaseous exchange to introduce 14 C-depleted carbon into groundwater at the Pureora site is most unlikely. Groundwater flow at the site will be dominated by vertically downwards flow of rainfall recharge from the soil layers to deeper units and thus atmospheric CO 2 must dominate carbon dioxide flux at the site.
The notion that magmatic carbon could be introduced into groundwater of the Pureora site from magmatic sources beneath Taupo volcano or anywhere in the central North Island , or somehow be introduced against gravity from the Waikato River water, is implausible. HDK18 state that in the Pureora tanekaha tree-ring record, 14 C levels plateaued or declined as the eruption approached p. However, the fitting of straight-line functions to 14 C concentrations is meaningless, as non-linearity in 14 C levels is universally recognised and underpins international calibration curves e.
Here we re-plot the Pureora tanekaha 14 C data against known calendar-age data from Northland northernmost North Island kauri 14 and Tasmanian huon pine Lagarostrobos franklinii 13 , 15 Fig. What HDK18 assert as evidence for isotopic dilution is simply a 14 C wiggle in atmospheric 14 C common to all three data sets.
In addition, HDK18 Fig. If correct, one would expect wiggle matching to derive a younger date for the eruption if the 14 C data from this year interval were excluded from the wiggle matching. The two sets were then wiggle-matched against SHCal13 The two sets considered separately give statistically identical model eruption dates both to each other and to the full year dataset.
Although 14 C-depleted materials are associated with magmatic degassing 11 , the context and consistency of any radiocarbon dates indicate whether a robust and accurate age estimate has been attained. We re-assert that radiocarbon wiggle matching to refine volcanic event chronologies, especially where sequential 14 C dates and Bayesian modelling form the basis of the event timing, remains an accurate and invaluable dating tool. All other data plotted are from the relevant published and cited papers.
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Wilson, C. The Taupo eruption, New Zealand, I. General aspects. A , — Lowe, D. Tephras and New Zealand archaeology. Holdaway, R. Evidence for magmatic carbon bias in 14 C dating of the Taupo and other major eruptions. Hogg, A. Revised calendar date for the Taupo eruption derived by 14 C wiggle-matching using a New Zealand kauri 14 C calibration data set.
Holocene 22 , — Clarkson, B. Composition and structure of forest overwhelmed at Pureora, central North Island, New Zealand, during the Taupo eruption c. AD Palmer, J. A year floating tree-ring chronology from Phyllocladus trichomanoides buried by the Taupo eruption at Pureora, central North Island, New Zealand. Volcano-meteorological tsunamis, the c.
AD Taupo eruption NZ and the possibility of a global tsunami. Holocene 10 , — Froggatt, P. A review of late Quaternary silicic and some other tephra formations from New Zealand: their stratigraphy, nomenclature, distribution, volume, and age.
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Grant-Taylor, T. New Zealand natural radiocarbon measurements I-V. Radiocarbon 5 , — Ages of 24 widespread tephras erupted since 30, years ago in New Zealand, with re-evaluation of the timing and palaeoclimatic implications of the late-glacial cool episode recorded at Kaipo bog. Beavan-Athfield, N. Environmental influences on dietary carbon and 14 C ages in modern rats and other species. Radiocarbon 43 , 7—14 Leonard, G.
Geology of the Rotorua area. Scale , Radiocarbon 55 , — Radiocarbon 53 , — Zimmerman, S. Extension of the Southern Hemisphere atmospheric radiocarbon curve, — years BP: results from Tasmanian Huon pine. Radiocarbon 52 , — Download references.